The challenge is for a graduate student when it is necessary to find a major scientific problem and formulate it as clearly as possible. One paragraph of text can take a very long time, and there is no limit to perfection. Moreover, with the first attempt, with a swoop, a scientific problem can be formulated unclearly or not in full.
Surprisingly, the exact formulation of the problem appears closer to the defense of the thesis, when all the work has already been completed. However, at the beginning of the dissertation research it is necessary to identify the initial problem, even if it is transformed in the course of the work.
The formulation of the problem must be approached from the position of consistency. That is, to carefully and meticulously analyze all possible materials on the topic of research and ways to solve them, at least theoretical. Such consideration of the object of study and everything connected with it will allow to formulate a systemic subject and, accordingly, to formulate a task, which no doubt can be called a major one.
The term “scientific problem” has several interpretations. It can be considered as an established contradiction arising between the unknown and the known, on the resolution of which depends the development of a discipline or branch of science. The formulation of the problem helps to determine the direction of the scientific research of the dissertation. She has the ability to point to an unknown direction and encourages the dissertation to study it and solve it.
The formulation of a scientific problem involves the following steps:
Identification of the need for the formulation of a scientific problem. This stage is completely dependent on the personal qualities of the author. If he decided to become a candidate of science, then the problem for research will definitely be found. This can help ordinary observation. Not all candidates of science were born with a problem in their head, but for each of them there was a little-studied area of science. Plus, everyone who has set a goal, must have achieved it.
Determination of the relevance of the problem. Traditionally, relevance is shaped from the needs of practice and can be determined by the logic of the development of science. If the time has come, the necessary means and methods for the development of the branch of science will appear.
In the process of participation in scientific conferences or the preparation of scientific articles, there may be a topic that really deserves attention and will be in demand. If scientific novelty is easily determined and the purpose of the study is determined without problems, then you can safely proceed to writing a dissertation.
If the work is related to the development of a new device, then perhaps this fact can contribute to the definition of the problem, for its practical solution and implementation.
Identification of the core of a scientific problem and scientific novelty. This stage is considered key, on which the meaning of the dissertation research depends. For example, if the applicant conducts laboratory tests, and an unusual phenomenon is established, which is connected, for example, with an increase in physical quantity, radiation intensity, force, then, having found out the reason why this phenomenon occurred, you can go to the scientific novelty of the work and explain that has been proven experimentally.
The erroneous assumption that a new device was obtained as a result of using a well-known mathematical apparatus or methods. In this case, one can hardly say about scientific novelty. In the case of developing a new method of calculation, then it could be used as an evidence base, and the method would be included in the scientific novelty of the work.
Expansion of the scope of the subject matter. The purpose of the stage is to approximate the boundaries of the object of study, object, methods. It is important to identify adjacent areas with the subject matter.
The formulation of a scientific problem. After all the steps have been completed, it will not be difficult to determine the problem correctly.